Alpine natural border between Italy and the countries of West and North Hmsabh forms. Series of lakes - where the mountains and hills to the mountains it - which is comprised of lakes Lugano and Kvmvst Mabvdh. Fertile Po valley - the large lowland and northern Italy - the hills north of the Alps mountains, hills Pnyn mountains in the south, the Alpine West and East located on the Adriatic Sea. Lygvryayy narrow Alpine Heights Alpine mountains Mrytaym Pnyn connects to the mountains. Pnyn mountain spine, stretches the entire length of the Italian peninsula. Coastal lands and relatively limited few, but include him in Tvskana intake, water intake, Taber around Rome, Campania around Naples and Jlg·hhayy lands along the Gulf of Taranto in Italy's heel Pvlya comment boots likened to Italy - The Big Island Italy - Sardyna and Sicily - both mostly mountainous. Italy soil is the most geologically unstable and is prone to earthquakes. The country has four active volcanoes, including Etna in Sicily and around Naples Vzvv.  Major rivers: the Po, Taber (Toure) Arno, Vltvrnv, Garalyanv.  highest point: the point just below the summit of Monte Blanco (Mont Blanc) 4760 m.  Climate: mild winters, hot and dry summers, Italy has a Mediterranean climate. Main islands of Sicily and Sardyna country is warmer and drier. Po Valley and Alpine winters are colder and more humid.

Important cities: Milan, Naples, Turin, Palermo, Jnvva, Bologna, Florence, Bari, Venice, Messina, Verona
Area: 301,230 sq km
Coastline: 7,600 km
Geographical coordinates: 42 degrees 50 minutes north and 12 degrees 50 minutes east

1993, for a period of five years under the system of two parliamentary representation in proportion to population in each region were selected. Senate reform, including the timing of system based on the most votes wins the most seats and getting used to determine the number of representatives in proportion to the population at a similar system for House Krsyhast can be recommended. The Senate has 315 members who represent the districts are elected by the citizens of the above, plus two 25-year-old former president and five senators for life, the president selects. The House of Representatives has 630 members who are elected by the citizens 18 years and older. President for a period of seven years by a electoral college consisting of members of Parliament and 58 representatives are elected from districts. President prime minister - who has the support of the majority in parliament - and the Council may appoint. All ministers are accountable to Parliament.  major political parties include: • People's Party (Christian Democrats, former Conservative •) • Democratic Left Party (former Communist Party) - was split in May 1993, • Socialist Party (PSI) • North Union (separatists, including union Lombard), • Republican (RPI) • Liberal Party • Radical Party • Social Democratic Party • Democratic Alliance (Reform) • MSI-DN (right).  twenty regions of Italy have their own local governments.  region of Italy called State Area (sq km) 10,794 Brvtsy Center Lakvyyd (some are administrative in Pescara) Avmbrya Bologna Emilia Romania 22,123 8,456 19,347 Barry Perugia Bazylykata 9992 Patnza Pvlya Pymvnth 25399 Turin (Torino) Trntynv - Ltvadyjh 13613 Trento and Bvltsanv Tvskana 22992 Florence (Fyrnts·h) Sardnya 24090 Cagliari Sicily (Sychylya) Palermo Friulan 25,708 - 158,080 Vntsajvlya Calabria Catanzaro Campania Trys·h 7846 13595 Naples (Napoli) 17203 Latsyv center of Rome (Rma) Lvmbardya 23834 Milan (Milano) Liguria 5413 9692 Jnvva Mark·h Ancona Vale de Yvsta Mvlyz·h Kampvbasv 4438 3262 18368 Venice, Veneto Yvsta (Vntsya) Join the United Nations of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty, the European Union Rabbi, Group of Seven, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.

United kingdom of Italy in March 1861, there were more Peninsula. In 1866 and in Rome in 1870 and was annexed to the kingdom. Political instability was associated with the development of the Union. Foreign adventures - like his attempt to annex parts of Antyvpy (1895 and 1896) - often remains sterile. Parliament had little respect and at the end of the nineteenth century witnessed a series of political assassinations - including the first Amyrtvy assassinated in 1900 - was. Austria, Italy, hoping to gain ground in the First World War, the Allies were. Italy, but much less than was predicted Nchkh the peace treaties after the war ground to pin this at a time when the fear of a communist revolution led to the growth of fascism. Fascist Mussolini in 1922 with an extensive program to modernize domestic and foreign policy, the prime minister was belligerent. Based in Rome, Italy in 1936 - Berlin, Germany was united in 1940 with the British and French fought Alam. When the Allied invasion of Italy in 1943 revenue, the king dismissed Mussolini and Italy joined the Allies. Republic was declared in 1946. However, the increasing dominance of the Christian Democratic Party (Conservative) coalition government of communists straight from Italy, the ruling on hold. Terrorist movements - left and right - especially in the 1970s were Qal. The real unity of effort for encouraging the economic development of the country through the South. But Italy's political structure remains unstable coalition governments throughout life is short. The transitional government was formed in 1993 to change the constitution to run non-political.

Literacy rate: 97% (1985 estimate). Compulsory school age 6 to 14 years, the number of 59, including two Polytechnic University on par with the university.

Available in northern Italy Sansh other parts of Europe, the major industrial center of Italy. In contrast, the south of the country is mostly agricultural products such as grapes, sugar beets, wheat, corn, soybean, tomato and produce. Most farms are small - and many southern farmers are resistant to change - because the average income in southern Italy (spring Jyvrnv) Hdnsbta much of the north of the country is below. Agricultural mechanization in the north and the main crops include wheat, corn, rice, grapes (for viticulture industries), fruits, and fodder for dairy industry farms. Now the industry is encouraged actively to the south. North of the country, including electrical and electronics industries, advanced vehicles, two-wheeled construction, textiles, clothing, leather goods, cement, glass, porcelain and ceramics are. North of significant financial and banking area of ​​the city and the commercial capital of Milan, Italy. Italy, other than rock - specially marble - and the Alpine rivers to generate force., He was blocked by hydroelectric, natural resources poorly. Italians working in tourism and money sent to foreign countries is an important source of foreign exchange earnings. Public sector budget deficit to economic stagnation and growing problem in Italy has increased.